Sunday, July 23, 2017


MORPHOLINE is  a colorless liquid, mobile, hygroscopic liquid with a characteristic  amine-like odor. It is completely miscible with water and a large number of organic solvents and is itself a solvent for a large variety of organic materials, including resins, dyes, waxes, shellac, and casein.

MORPHOLINE is an extremely versatiles chemical with many importants applications. It is used an intermediate in the manufacture of rubber chemical and optical brightener s. It is also used extensively as a corrosion inhibitor in steam boiler systems .

Fatty acid derivates of morpholine are used as emulsifiers in the manufacture of waxes and polishes. Other derivative chemicals, and antioxidants for lubricating oils. Morpholine derivatives are particularly useful in the textile industry, where they are employed as textile lubricants and sizing emulsifiers.


Corrosion Inhibitors

Morpholine is widely used as a neutralizing amine in combating carbonic acid corrosion in condensate return lines of steam boiler systems. The morpholine volatilizes with the steam from the boiler and condenses when the steam does, thereby affording protection to the lines, which otherwise would be subjected to corrosion by the carbonic acid present in the steam condensate.

Morpholine vapors protect silver and other metals against corrosion and tarnish by acid fumes, such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The morpholine is supplied by evaporation from solution in a solid, such as camphor,  or by sublimation from morpholinium N N-oxydiethylenecarbamate.

Morpholine is a component of a corrosion inhibitor system that prevents decomposition of a chlorinated hydrocarbon in a composition containing the chlorinated hydrocarbon and a large amount of water.

Corrosion of metal aerosol containers and valves can be prevented by the use of low levels of morpholine.

Morpholine is one of several amines employed as phosphates for inhibiting the corrosive action of greaseproof paper on steel and other metals. Di-4-morpholinyl polysulfides have been claimed as corrosioin inhibitors to be added to mineral lubricating oils. Turbine oils, especially, are quickly contamined with water, and to protect the machinery against rusting, 4,4-alkylidenedimorpholines and poly ( 4-morpholinylmethyl) phenols have been used. Storage tanks, pipes, and other device for handling petroleum distillates must be protected against corrosion and for this purpose 4,4-butylmercaptomorpholine, morpholinium mahogany sulfonates, and morpholine in conjunction with ammonium mahogany sulfoantes have been suggested.

Wax Emulsifiers and Surface-Active Agents

When morpholine is reacted with fatty acids, it forms soaps possessing excellent emulsifying properties. The oleic soap is a particularly important emulsifier used in the formulation of self-polishing waxes and polishes. One of the main advantages of morpholine-based emulsifiers is the similar boiling points of morpholine and water. When the loosely bound faty acid-morpholine compound breaks down, the morpholine component evaporates at approximately the same rate as the water. Consequently, the resultant wax film is left dry and void of morpholine and is then highly water resistant. This is a very desirable feature in household and automobile waxes and polishes.

The reaction products of morpholine and tung oil or linseed oil havbe been found to be good emulsifying and dispersing agents. Also, the quaternary alkyl ammonium sulfates of Mannich bases from morpholine and mono- or polyhydric phenols have been patented as emulsifying and wetting agents.

A number of other morpholine containing compounds have been used as wetting agents, and it is said that morpholinium linoleate is an especially good surface tension depressor for use in rust preventive compositions because it tends to harden the rust preventive film.

The morpholine salt of polymeric maleamic acid has been used in compositions for coating paper, cloth, etc. Small quantities of morpholine have been incorporated in fireproofing materials, and the stability of certain asphalt emulsion has been improved by the addition of morpholine. This amine has also been used as an equalizing and dispersing agent in dye baths and printing pastes, and its quaternary alkyl ammonium sulfates have been patended as general surface active agents.

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Morpholine as corrosion inhibitor

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