Tuesday, December 15, 2015

PEG 400

PEG 400 (polyethylene glycol 400) is a low-molecular-weight grade of polyethylene glycol. It is a clear, colorless, viscous liquid. Due in part to its low toxicity, PEG 400 is widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. Cosmetics & Personal Care,  Chemical Intermediates, Food Processing & Packaging, Pharmaceuticals 

PEG 400 (Polyethylene Glycol 400) is a clear, colorless liquid that is made from sugar cane waste so it is naturally derived and renewable. It is completely soluble in water and has an average molecular weight of 380 - 420.

PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Polyethylene glycol has a low toxicity and is used in a variety of products. The polymer is used as a lubricating coating for various surfaces in aqueous and non-aqueous environments.Since PEG is a flexible, water-soluble polymer, it can be used to create very high osmotic pressures (on the order of tens of atmospheres). It also is unlikely to have specific interactions with biological chemicals. These properties make PEG one of the most useful molecules for applying osmotic pressure in biochemistry experiments, in particular when using the osmotic stress technique.[citation needed] Polyethylene glycol is also commonly used as a polar stationary phase for gas chromatography, as well as a heat transfer fluid in electronic testers. PEO (polyethylene oxide) can serve as the separator and electrolyte solvent in lithium polymer cells. Its low diffusivity often requires high temperatures of operation, but its high viscosity - even near its melting point - allows very thin electrolyte layers to be created. While crystallization of the polymer can degrade performance, many of the salts used to carry charge can also serve as a kinetic barrier to the formation of crystals. Such batteries carry greater energy for their weight than other lithium ion battery technologies. PEG has also been used to preserve objects that have been salvaged from underwater, as was the case with the warship Vasa in Stockholm, the Mary Rose in England and the Ma'agan Michael Ship in Israel. It replaces water in wooden objects, making the wood dimensionally stable and preventing warping or shrinking of the wood when it dries. In addition, PEG is used when working with green wood as a stabilizer, and to prevent shrinkage. PEG is often used (as an internal calibration compound) in mass spectrometry experiments, with its characteristic fragmentation pattern allowing accurate and reproducible tuning. PEG derivatives, such as narrow range ethoxylates, are used as surfactants. PEG has been used as the hydrophilic block of amphiphilic block copolymers used to create some polymersomes.

Commercial uses
PEG is the basis of many skin creams (as cetomacrogol) and sexual lubricants (frequently combined with glycerin).

PEG is used in a number of toothpastes as a dispersant. In this application, it binds water and helps keep xanthan gum uniformly distributed throughout the toothpaste.

PEG is also under investigation for use in body armor, and in tattoos to monitor diabetes.
In low-molecular-weight formulations (i.e PEG 400), it is used in Hewlett-Packard designjet printers as an ink solvent and lubricant for the print heads.

PEG is also one of the main ingredients in paintball fills, due to its thickness and flexibility. However, as early as 2006, some Paintball manufacturers began substituting cheaper alternatives for PEG.[citation needed]

PEG is a major ingredient in e-liquid, used in electronic cigarettes. It is generally used as a 30%-50% proportion of the liquid that is vaporized. Its use is designed to give a smoother effect to the vaporizing action.[citation needed] PEG is also used as an anti-foaming agent in food - its INS number is 1521or E1521 in the EU.

Industrial uses
Nitrate ester-plasticized polyethylene glycol is used in Trident II ballistic missile solid rocket fuel.
Dimethyl ethers of PEG are the key ingredient of Selexol, a solvent used by coal-burning, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the gas waste stream.

PEG has been used as the gate insulator in an electric double-layer transistor to induce superconductivity in an insulator.

PEG is also used as a polymer host for solid polymer electrolytes. Although not yet in commercial production, many groups around the globe are engaged in research on solid polymer electrolytes involving PEG, with the aim of improving their properties, and in permitting their use in batteries, electro-chromic display systems, and other products in the future.

Notes :
PEG 400, 225 kg/dr. Ex. Local, Stock available.

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