Monday, January 18, 2016

SUCROSE ESTER as food emulsifier

What is Sucrose Ester E 473:

Sucrose esters of fatty acids, commonly known as sucrose esters, and sucrose oligo esters are a relatively new extension to the line of emulsifiers available for the American food market.By varying the degree of esterification of the sucrose molecule it is possible to obtain emulsifiers with HLB values ranging from 1 up to 16 for the high mono-esters.
Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance:
1. SE having high HLB is easier to dissolve in water and suitable for O/W    
    emulsified foods, eq. coffee cream,  whipped topping.
2. SE haveing lower HLB is  easier to dissolve in oil, and suitable for W/O    
     emulsified foods.  eq. margarine, fat spread.
HLB Applications for :

* Coffe whitener:  > #11 as emulsify
* Whipped topping <#11 as demulsify, > #11 as emulsify
* Candy : 1-11 as mold release, > #11 as emulsify & stabilize
Sucrose esters are obtained by esterifying sucrose with edible fatty acids from palm oil. This enables them to be used as emulsifiers in virtually all food products. 
Sucrose esters are used in many applications: 
Sucrose esters can be used in a wide range of food applications.
They are mostly used in :
  • Bakery
  • Confectionery
  • Desserts 
  • Cereals
  • Dairy
  • Ice cream 
  • Sauces
Sucrose esters are classified as emulsifiers, besides emulsification they have additional functionalities for which they are often used.
Other functions are :
> Starch interaction
> Protein interaction
> Sugar crystallisation and aeration.
These functions can affect production and the quality of the end product. The freshness of baked products, the flavour outcome in ice cream or chocolate mousse and the accelerated production of panned candy and soft candy are some examples.
Basic Functions:

1. Solubility

2. Solution Viscosity

3. surfacet tension

4. Anti-retrogradation :
     Retrogradation of starch, food texture, taste, mouthfeel tend to be bad.
     With higher HLB sucrose esters, starch gel keeps soft texture for more
     than 2 weeks. HigherHLB can inhibit the retrogradation of starch.
     Long shelf life of texture and of pastries and breads are possible.
     Notes : Gel hardening means retrogradation of startch.
5. Antibacterial, higher monoester show better antibacterial. This function is very
     important for beverage and milk beverage.
6.  O/W emulsifying
7.  W/O emulsifying
8.  Fat crystal improver
Sucrose esters of fatty acids, commonly known as sucrose esters, and sucrose oligo esters are a relatively new extension to the line of emulsifiers available for the American food market. Being based on sucrose and edible fatty acids, sucrose esters are a unique range of high quality, non-ionic emulsifiers. 
They are obtained by esterifying one or more of the (primary) hydroxyl groups of the sucrose molecule with methyl fatty acids. By varying the degree of esterification of the sucrose molecule it is possible to obtain emulsifiers with HLB values ranging from 1 up to19 for the high mono-esters. 

Sucrose esters can be used in a wide range of food applications. They are mostly used in bakery, confectionery, desserts and special emulsions. This white paper presents more detailed physical and chemical information as well as regulatory information about sucrose esters and sucrose oligo esters. 

Sucrose (oligo) esters melt at temperatures between 40°C and 60°C, depending on the degree of  esterification. Heating to temperatures up to 185°C can be done without any harmful effects on the performance. However, at temperatures higher th an 140°C some colour formation can occur due to caramellisation of traces of free sucrose present in the product. 

They are stable at pH values between 4 and 8. At pH values higher than 8, saponification of the ester bond may occur, while under acid conditions inversion of the sucrose moiety is possible. Acid aggregation may occur at very low pH and high salt concentration. Solubility: Sucrose esters are more easily dissolved in water and do not dissolve in oil. Sucrose oligo esters do not dissolve in water and dissolve better in oil When the oil or water phase is heated to 60- 80°C the solubility improves.

1. Usage in bakery applications 
Sucrose esters of fatty acids are used in the main areas of baked goods such as (reduced fat) high ratio and pound cakes, sponge cakes, (low fat) biscuits and frozen dough. The functionalities of Sucrose esters in baked goods, besides their emulsifying properties, can be divided into two main areas: 
  • Protein interaction:
            The chemical structure of sucrose esters enables them to interact 
             with the proteins present in flour, by means of hydrophilic and/ 
             or hydrophobic bindings.
  •  Starch interactio 
     The non-ionic character of sucrose esters enables them to complex 
          readily and effectively with amylose, present in flour. It is assumed that, 
          like other emulsifiers, the fatty acid chain trapped  within the helical 
          conformation  of the amylase molecule. The resulting complex delays 
          starch gelatinization and starch retrogradation. A soft crumb structure, 
          large volume and extended shelf life are the result.

Advantages of sucrose esters in baked products:
• increased mixing tolerance of dough or batter
• high volume
• improved crumb softness
   • improved shelf life
• improved freeze-thaw stability

 2. Usage in sugar (or sugar free) confections 
        Sucrose esters are used in soft grained confection such as fudges, toffee’s, fondants and 
          chewies. Other application area’s are cereal bars and panned confectionery. 
Two functionalities play a primary role in sugar confectionery:

>  Controlled sugar crystallisation     
        Sucrose esters affect sugar crystallisation and sugar crystal stability. 
        By adding sucrose esters to a sugar solution the lower limit of the metastable 
        region will be at a lower temperature. By increasing the metastable region or 
        super saturation curve many more nuclei will be formed. On these nuclei 
        the sugar will crystallise. The more nuclei to begin  with the more crystals 
        will be created and the smaller the resulting average crystal size. 
        Crystallisatioin will also be much quicker when there are more nuclei available 
      on which to crystallise.

A laser beam is sent through a hot sugar solution. When the solution cools down sugar crystals are formed. The solution becomes opaque and the laser beam is dispersed. This is detected by a light sensitive cell. The temperature at which this happens is the lower limit. When reheated the crystals are dissolved again and the beam is not dispersed anymore. This temperature is the upper limit. The temperature range between upper and lower limit is called the metastable region.

> Emulsification
   Candy recipes often contain fat to carry the flavour and create 

      a specific mouthfeel.    
      Sucrose esters with a high HLB-value ( high mono-ester content ) are very 
      strong oil-in-water emulsifiers and will disperse the fat thoroughly in the candy. 
      This will prevent  fat oozing from the candy and staining the paper wrapping 
      additionally it prevents quality  issues such as rancidity.

 Advantages of sucrose esters in confectionery:
• Accelerated sugar (or polyol) crystallisation, thus more rapid  
• Formation of small sized, stable, crystals.
• Dry, non-sticking, surface of the candy.
• Improved shelf life.
• Smooth and soft structure.
• Attractive and whiter appearance.
• No fat separation from the candy

 3. Usage in dairy and desserts
      Sucrose esters are used in ice cream, mousses and dairy alternatives such as non-dairy   

        toppings. The role of sucrose esters in these applications shows a big variety from 
        emulsification to aerating agent and protein protection. 

1) Emulsification
     High mono-ester sucrose esters have exceptionally high HLB 
         (Hydrophilic,  Lipophilic Balance). High HLB-value emulsifiers are 
         very suitable for making oil-in-water  emulsions which most dairy 
         and desserts are. In general they make smaller fat or oil droplets which 
         are more stable. The effect of small and stable droplets differ per 
         application, in chocolate mousse it helps to improve the chocolate 
         flavour outcome, in ice cream it  creates a clean eating profile in 
         toppings it improves stability.

2) Aerating agent:
    Medium to high HLB-value emulsifiers are also very good  
foamers, depending 
        on the requested foam volume and foam  stiffness the best grade can be chosen. 
        Sucrose esters are especially known for creating a very fine foam structure 
        the effect is creamy, rich but not heavy mouthfeel of e.g. chocolate  mousse. 

 3) Protein interaction:
     The chemical structure of sucrose esters enables them to interact 
          the proteins present in most dairy products, by means of hydrophilic 
          and/or hydrophobic bindings. The effect on the  proteins is that they are 
          less sensitive for flocculation caused by low pH, heating or shear.

Advantages of sucrose esters in dairy and desserts:
• Improved flavour release
• Quick and high overrun
• Fine foam structure
• Creamy mouthfeel
• Prevention of protein flocculation 

 4. Usage in sauces and emulsions
     In Europe sucrose esters are used in cooked white sauces, 
          mayonnaise and also in more special emulsions such as cooking
          sprays and colour emulsions. In the US the usage in these 
          applications is still prohibited. Emulsification is the number one 
          functionality in these applications. Sucrose esters are especially
          good at creating very stable (low viscous) emulsions.

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