Wednesday, May 11, 2016

POLYSORBATE 80 atau TWEEN 80 adalah bahan emulsifier untuk makanan dan kosmetik

Tween 80 adalah ester asam lemak polioksietilen sorbitan, dengan nama kimia polioksietilen 20 sorbitan monooleat. Rumus molekulnya adalah C64H124O26.

Pada suhu 25ºC, Tween 80 berwujud cair, berwarna kekuningan dan berminyak, memiliki aroma yang khas, dan berasa pahit. Larut dalam air dan etanol, tidak larut dalam minyak mineral. Kegunaan Tween 80 antara lain sebagai: zat pembasah, emulgator, dan peningkat kelarutan (Rowe, 2009). Selain fungsi, fungsi tersebut, Tween 80 juga berfungsi sebagai peningkat penetrasi (Akhtar, et al., 2011).
Polysorbate 80 is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier often used in foods and cosmetics. This synthetic compound is a viscous, water-soluble yellow liquid.

Polysorbate 80 is derived from polyethoxylated sorbitan and oleic acid. The hydrophilic groups in this compound are polyethers also known as polyoxyethylene groups, which are polymers of ethylene oxide. In the nomenclature of polysorbates, the numeric designation following polysorbate refers to the lipophilic group, in this case the oleic acid (see polysorbate for more detail).

The full chemical names for polysorbate 80 are:
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate
(x)-sorbitan mono-9-octadecenoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)


Food use
Polysorbate 80 is used as an emulsifier in foods.
For example, in ice cream, polysorbate is added up to 0.5% (v/v) concentration to make the ice cream smoother and easier to handle, as well as increasing its resistance to melting.[4] Adding this substance prevents milk proteins from completely coating the fat droplets. This allows them to join together in chains and nets, which hold air in the mixture, and provide a firmer texture that holds its shape as the ice cream melts.

Healthy and Beauty use
Polysorbate 80 is also used as a surfactant in soaps and cosmetics, or a solubilizer such as in a mouthwash. The cosmetic grade of polysorbate 80 may have more impurities than the food grade

Medical use
Polysorbate 80 is an excipient that is used to stabilize aqueous formulations of medications for parenteral administration, and used as an emulsifier in the manufacture of the popular antiarrhythmic amiodarone.[6] It is also used as an excipient in some European and Canadian influenza vaccines.[7] Influenza vaccines contain 25 μg of polysorbate 80 per dose.[7] It is also used in the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth. It is also used as an emulsifier in the estrogen-regulating drug Estrasorb

Laboratory use
Some mycobacteria contain a type of lipase (enzyme that breaks up lipid molecules). When added to a mixture of polysorbate 80 and phenol red, they cause the solution to change colour, so this is used as a test to identify thephenotype of a strain or isolate.

Color               Yellow to orange colored, oily liquid
                        Lemon- to amber-colored, oily liquid
Flash Point        > 300 deg F
Solubility          Very soluble in water; soluble in alcohol, cottonseed oil, corn oil, ethyl acetate,
                       methanol, toluene; insoluble in mineral oil
Density            1.06-1.10
Stability            Polysorbates are stable to electrolyes and weak acids and bases; gradual
                       saponification occurs with strong acids and bases. The oleic acid esters are
                       sensitive to oxidation. Polysorbates are
                       hygroscopic and should be examined for water content prior to use and dried
                       if necessary.
                       Also, in common with other polyoxyethylene surfactants, prolonged storage can
                       lead to the  formation of peroxides.

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